[ENG] S01C3.1 – Famous Psychologists | Các nhà Tâm lý học nổi tiếng

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汉语5 《六人行》

《六人行》是一部美国拍摄的情景喜剧,展示纽约三男三女六位好友的日常生活。Ross 和 Monica 是生活在纽约的犹太兄妹。Ross 是一位古板的古生物学学者,Monica 是一切事物都要分类整理好的一位厨师长。Chandler 是 Ross 的大学室友和最好朋友,他有很强的幽默感,不过有时缺乏自信。Joey 是意大利一位好心,喜爱食物和女人的演员。Phoebe 的幼时没有她朋友那么幸福。她虽然在街头长大,但是最后成为了一个心地善良的人,一只蚂蚁也不敢杀,如今是一位按摩师。Rachel 本来是被宠坏了的富家女孩,后来为了要独立地生活得去当咖啡店侍女,她最后在时尚界工作。他们六个人是好朋友,每天都互相分享自己生活的点点滴滴。在这部喜剧的结尾,Ross 跟 Rachel,Chandler 跟 Monica 分别结婚,从此过上了幸福的生活。这部喜剧最大的特点就是它的幽默感。我敢肯定你看每集的时候一定会捧腹大笑。他们演出时把自身和剧中的角色融为一体,以致很多人经常混淆他们的真实身份。世界各地有数百万的观众看这部喜剧,它在世界上拥有第四多的观众数。《六人行》典型地描绘了多数美国人的生活。它虽然有点儿夸大美国人的日常生活,但是确实是一个电视史的杰作。《六人行》虽然只是一种情景喜剧,但是许多心理学家研究发现它对世界各地的文化产生了深远的影响。比如说,很多人都模仿 Rachel 的发型。Joey 的口头禅“How you doin’?”成为西方流行的俚语,经常被人们用来问候朋友。“Central-Perk”是这部喜剧的主要场景。这个咖啡店的装饰在全世界得到了广泛的模仿。世界各地有不少咖啡馆有着和它相同的布局。

总的来说,《六人行》是关于爱情,男女关系,职业,一段在你生命中一切皆有可能的时光。它也是关于人与人之间的友谊,因为当你一个人在城市生活时,你的朋友就是你的亲人。

汉语4《我到过的地方》

越南,对我很亲切的两个字,是我的故乡。她是中国南边的一个小国家。虽然越南比中国小,但是有不少知名的地方。“大叻”,越南南方的一个高原城市,是个非常有名的旅游景点。四年前,我跟我们班同学去参观了大叻。现在我想简单地给你们介绍一下 “大叻”。

“大叻”常常被认为是一个小巴黎,可能是因为它有高原寒冷的夜晚,清晨的雾和包围这个城市的落叶松林。大叻地处海拔 1500 米,所以那儿的天气全年都很清凉,平均气温是 18到 21 度。人们喜欢夏天到大叻旅游因为他们可以暂时忘记越南夏天的炎热。大叻最有名的地方是 Prenn 瀑布,爱情谷和 Lang Biang 山。Prenn 离大叻的中心 10 公里远。它是一个自然瀑布,下边有一座桥,游客可以沿桥观光或者在湖上划船,享受四周美丽的风景。离市中心不远的东边就是“爱情谷”,是大叻地区最浪漫的景点,所以情人们喜欢到这里漫步和谈话。以前法国人把它称之为 “Vallée d’Amour ”,然后它的名字被改成 “和平谷”,最后又变回“爱情谷”,它本来的名字。从高处看下去,它看起来好像一幅生动的图片。到大叻旅游非到 Lang Biang 山不可。这座山被认为是大叻的屋顶,它离海平面 2000 多米,是大叻的一大著名旅游景点。这座山的名字源于一个悲伤的爱情故事。清晨的时候雾很浓,所以山上什么都看不到。只有太阳出来之后,人才可以看到周围的景色。
越南的夏天是最热的时候,所以也是大叻旅客最多的时候。我很长时间没有重游大叻这个美丽的高原成市。大叻对我很特别,因为我觉得那次旅行开阔了我的眼界。那次旅行不但让我感受了大叻的清凉, 而且让我见识到一些有趣的原住民文化。

Something fun about Vietnamese

Hi guys,

Just wanna share with you something fun about Vietnamese, in particular the way Vietnamese text can be semantically ambiguous.

Vietnamese is a tone language, which employs diacritics to signify different tones as well as certain consonants and vowels. In order to understand how Vietnamese works phonologically and orthographically, think of the Pinyin system in Mandarin Chinese. They are quite analogous to each other. Diacritics constitute various a contrastive features in this language (i.e. phonemes & graphemes). In email or cell phone texting where a Vietnamese keyboard is unavailable, we have to spell words in a toneless manner and the burden of decoding is on the part of the message interpreter since toneless means lexical ambiguity. For example, the toneless “quan” can be interpreted as “quan” (官/official, government), “quán” (馆/store, shop), “quản” (管/administer), “quân” (army), “quần” (pants/trousers), “quận” (区/district), and the list goes on. I came across this humorous instance of non-tonal Vietnamese text which is semantically ambiguous due to lexical ambiguity.

In this post I am going to talk about …

Be warned, the following text includes adult content, you must be 18 years old and above to view it! 😛

(1) The toneless version:

“Anh oi! Ba ma em khong co nha, em dang coi quan, den ngay di anh, muon lam roi. Tien the mua bao moi nhe, o nha toan la bao cu… ma thoi khong can mua bao dau, em vua mat kinh roi, khong nhin duoc nua anh oi, den ngay di… muon lam roi

(2) What the writer originally meant:

“Anh ơi! Ba má em không có nhà, em đang coi quán, đến ngay đi anh, muộn lắm rồi. Tiện thể mua báo mới nhé, ở nhà toàn báo cũ… Mà thôi không cần mua báo đâu, em vừa mất kính rồi, không nhìn được nữa anh ơi, đến ngay đi… muộn lắm rồi”

–> A rough translation by me:

“Hey honey, my parents are not home, I’m looking after the shop, come now honey, it’s already very late. Oh by the way could you get the new newspaper, all the newspapers at home are so old…But that’s fine though, no need to get the newspapers, I’ve just lost my glasses, so I can’t see/read anyway, come now…it’s already very late”

(3) The interpretation that creates the humorous effect:

Anh ơi! Ba má em không có nhà, em đang cởi quần, đến ngay đi anh, muốn lắm rồi. Tiện thể mua bao mới nhé, ở nhà toàn bao cũ… Mà thôi không cần mua bao đâu, em vừa mắt kinh rồi, không nhịn được nữa anh ơi, đến ngay đi… muốn lắm rồi”

–> A rough translation by me:

“Hey honey, my parents are not home, I’m taking off my pants, come now honey, I want it so badly. Oh by the way could you get the new rubber, all the rubber at home are so old…but that’s fine though, no need to get them, I’ve just got my period, can’t help it anymore, come now…I want it so bad already.”

*** Analysis:

In order to interpret the toneless message, it is likely that the reader usually (if not always) has to invoke an interpretive frame (e.g. assume a subject matter to serve as background knowledge for the whole message), contextual knowledge (e.g. the situation in which the message is interpreted, or world knowledge) and linguistic knowledge (e.g. collocation, colligation, semantic prosody, etc.) to reconstruct a coherent message. Although a toneless word can belong to different word classes depending on which diacritic(s) is being applied by the interpreter, more often than not the surrounding text narrows it down to only one possible word class for each word, since interpreters usually (if not always) have to read in collocation rather than isolated words to make sense of any sentence. For example:

+ ‘coi quan’ gives 2 possibilities which has one pattern [V + N]: coi quán (look after the shop) OR cởi quần (V + N; take off the pants). Although ‘coi quần’ (V + N; look after/look at the pants), this is not a collocation in Vietnamese, and thus ruling out such a semantically ill-informed combination.

+ ‘muon lam roi’ gives 2 possibilities in 2 possible patterns: [V + Adv + pragmatic particle] (muộn lắm rồi – already very late) OR [Adj + Adv + pragmatic particle] (muốn lắm rồi – want so badly)

The comical effect that we get from (3), I believe, is underlain by the frame being invoked. In (3), a frame of ‘sexual encounter’ has to be first invoked by the message interpreter in order for him to slot possible diacritics into the message to form lexical items in the same semantic field (e.g. taking off pants, help, rubber, period, want) that cohere with one another. The same concept applies in (2), though I’m not so sure which frame is being invoked since (2) seems incoherent to me, unless the girl and the guy in the story already talked about getting some new newspapers sometime before. The phrase ‘looking after the shop’ is rather unrelated to ‘getting new newspapers’, ‘glasses’ and ‘read’, although ‘newspapers’, ‘glasses’ and ‘read’ are probably in the same semantic field.

I believe that (3) is the preferred reading since it is more coherent than (2). Yet, an interpretation of (2) is possible if the reader is inexperienced with the subject matter in (3).

Cheers,

Dat

汉语2 《 我的家人 》

大家好,我姓胡,叫敬达,今年二十岁。我是越南人,现在是新加坡国立大学文学院第一年的学生,我的专业是”交流和新传媒”。

我非常喜欢介绍我的家人。我们家一共有五口人,有我外公、外婆、妈妈、弟弟和我。我外公今年七十五岁,外婆六十八岁。他们因为年纪大了,所以都没有工作。现在我的家人都在越南,只有我外婆跟阿姨一起住在美国。我妈妈的名字叫爱玲,今年四十三岁,是一位家庭主妇。她空闲时,我常常陪她去打网球。她说我很胖,应该去户外运动。我弟弟是一位中学生,他于一九九三年一月三十一日出生,他的生日已经过了,今年十五岁。妈妈常常说他比我帅,哈哈。:)) 我弟弟很喜欢玩电脑游戏。

每当节日来临,我们一家人会一起去旅行,我们常常去海滩玩儿。不过我们从来没有出国旅行,因为出国旅行太贵。每一个周末,我都会陪我的家人看喜剧。我们有很多在一起的美 好时光。

以下是我生日会的照片。我的生日很热闹,有很多人出席,有我的家人和我朋友 。那天是我出国前一天。这是我第一次在外国念书!过去的八个月还没有见面我敬爱的外公,亲爱的母亲和顽皮的弟弟。我好想他们,所以我已经买一张机票了,今年五月我会回越南跟我家人团聚。。。